过去分词小结

过去分词小结 | 楼主 | 2016-12-21 21:42:25 共有3个回复
  1. 1过去分词小结
  2. 2法语过去分词小结
  3. 3unit2过去分词作宾补用法小结

有时为了强调还可将单一的分词放在被修饰的名词之后,过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态,这些作状语的过去分词短语相当于对应的状语从句,分词作宾语补足语时句子的宾语就是该分词的逻辑主语。

过去分词小结2016-12-21 21:39:45 | #1楼回目录

过去分词

过去分词是非谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作的被动和完成,在句中可作定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。 (一)作定语

1.前置定语:单独一个过去分词作定语时一般放在被修饰的名词之前。例如:

We need more qualified teacher.

2.后置定语:分词短语放在被修饰的名词之后。 例如:The girl dressed in red is Mary’s sister.

拓展 (1)如果被修饰的词是复合不定代词或指示代词时,虽然是一个单一的分词作定语,也要放在被修饰的名词之后。例如: There is almost nothing changed since I left the town two years ago.

(2)有时为了强调还可将单一的分词放在被修饰的名词之后。例如:

They decided to change the material used.他们决定改变所用的材料。

(二)作表语

1.过去分词作表语,表示主语所处的状态。

例如:The door remained locked.门仍然锁着。

2.过去分词作表语,相当于形容词,最常见的有:delighted,disappointed,discouraged,drunk,amused,interested,satisfied等。

例如:He was interested in collecting stamps. (三)作宾语补足语

过去分词可以在see,hear,notice,watch,have,feel等动词后作宾语补足语,强调分词与宾语之间为被动关系。例如: I often hear the song sung in English.我常听人用英语唱这首歌。

例1 It is one of the funniest things ________ on the Internet so far this year.

A.findingB.being foundC.to findD.found例2 We finished the run in lethan half the time ________. A.allowingB.to allowC.allowedD.allows

例3 Please remain ________;the winner of the prize will be announced soon.

A.seatingB.seatedC.to seatD.to be seated(四)作状语

过去分词作状语时,可表示时间、原因、条件、让步或伴随等情况。这些作状语的过去分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。需要特别注意的是:过去分词作状语时的逻辑主语应与句子的主语一致。表示时间

Seen from the top of the hill,our city looks surrounded in the fog. =When it is seen from the top of the hill,our city looks surrounded in the fog.

Once published,the dictionary will be very popular.

=Once it is published,the dictionary will be very popular. 拓展

有时为了强调时间概念,过去分词之前可用表示时间的连词,如when,while等。例如:

When completed,this railway will link many industrial cities to a seaport.

When told to go to the teachers’ office,the girl began to cry. 表示原因

Tired out by hard work,he soon fell asleep.

—Since he was tired out by hard work,he soon fell asleep. 表示条件

Given more time,we would certainly have finished the job much better.

—If we had been given more time,we would certainly have finished the job much better

Beaten by the opposite team,the players were not discouraged. =Though they were beaten by the opposite team,the players were not discouraged.

过去分词

1

表示伴随 二、做表语时:分词作表语时,句子的主语就是该分词的逻辑主语。The professor sat there,surrounded by a lot of students. 但现在分词作表语时,与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,所表示的动He came to greet us,dressed as a businessman. 作的一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;而过去分词则表 拓展示被动关系,所示动作一般发生在谓语动词之前或同时发生。

1.This news sounds ____. Easier said than done.说比做容易。

A. encouraging B. encouraged C. encourage D. to encourage Once bitten,twice shy.一次被咬,下次胆校

三、分词作宾语补足语时 Well begun,half done.良好的开端是成功的一半。

分词作宾语补足语时,句子的宾语就是该分词的逻辑主语。但现在A penny saved is a penny gained.省一文等于挣一文。

分词与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,所表示的动作一般与句中谓语A burnt child dreads the fire.一朝被蛇咬,十年怕井绳。

动词所表示的动作同时发生;而过去分词则表示被动关系,所示动A word spoken is past recalling.一言既出,驷马难追。

作一般发生在谓语动词之前或同时发生。 The used key is always bright.常用的钥匙总是闪亮的。 1.The next morning she found the man ____ in bed, dead. 例1 ________ by a greater demand for vegetables,farmers have A. lying B. lieC. laybuilt more green houses. D. laying A.DrivenB.Being drivenC.To driveD.Having2. -Good morning. Can I help you? driven -I’d like to have the package ____, madam. 例2________ not to watch TV,the boy got angry. A. be weighedB. to be weighed C. to weigh D. A.To tellB.To be toldC.TellingD.Told weighed 例2 ________ at the sight,she couldn’t go to sleep.四、分词作状语时:分词作状语时,句子的主语就是该分词的逻辑A.SurprisingB.FearedC.FrighteningD.Frightened 主语。但现在分词作状语时,与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系,所表

现在分词和过去分词区别 示的动作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;而过去分词现在分词和过去分词之间的根本区别是: 则表示被动关系,所示动作一般发生谓语动词之前或同时发生。过去分词在时态上强调动作已经完成,在语态上侧重于被动; 1.European football is played in 80 countries, ____ it the most popular 而现在分词在时态上强调动作正在进行,在语态上侧重于主动。 sport in the world.

A. makingB. makes C. made D. to一、作定语时:分词作定语时,被分词所修饰的名词就是该分词make 的逻辑主语。但现在分词与逻辑主语之间是主动关系,所表示的动2.____ a reply, he decided to write again. 作一般与句中谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生;而过去分词则表示A. Not receivingB. Receiving not 被动关系,所示动作一般发生在谓语动词之前或同时发生。 C. Not having received D. Having not received练习.1.There was a terrible noise ____ the sudden burst of light. 3.The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back.A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being A. being tied B. having tiedC. to be tiedD. tied followed 针对性训练12. What’s the language ____ in Germany?

A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken单项填空

D. to speak

过去分词 2

1. Because of my poor English I'm afraid I can't make myself________.

A. understand B. to understand C. understanding D. understood2. The workers want us________ together with them.A. work B. working C. to work D. worked3. What's the language________in Germany?A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak4. ________some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed by

5. Most of the people________ to the party were famous scientists.A. invited B. to inviteC. being invitedD. inviting6. He was disappointed to find his suggestions________.

A. been turned down B. turned down C. to be turned down D. to turn down

7. Do you know the boy________ under the big tree?A. lay B. lain C. laying D. lying8. -Good morning. Can I help you?

-I'd like to have this package________, madam.A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed9. There was a terrible noise________ the sudden burst of light.A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed10. ________more attention, the trees could have grown better.A. Given B. To giveC. Giving D. Having given

11. The secretary worked late into the night, ________a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing12. It was so cold that they kept the fire ________all night.A. to burn B. burn C. burning D. burned

13. Generally speaking,________ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect.

A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take

14. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ________the girl and took her away,________ into the woods.

A. seizing;disappeared B.seized; disappeared C. seizing; disappearing D.seized; disappearing

15. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains________ whether they will enjoy it.A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen

16. The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain________ as the plane was making a landing.

A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating

17. After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, ________.

A. exhausting B. exhausted C. being exhausted D. having exhausted18. The________ boy was last seen________ near the East Lake.A. missing; playing B. missing; play C. missed; played D. missed; to play

19. The patient was warned________ oily food after the operation.A. to eat not B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating20. While building a tunnel through the mountain, ________.

A. an underground lake was discovered B. there was an underground lake discovered

C. a lake was discovered underground D. the workers discovered an underground lake

法语过去分词小结2016-12-21 21:41:13 | #2楼回目录

过去分词除与助动词构成复合时态和被动态以外,还可以独立使用。

1.1.特征:

1)相当于形容词,置于名词后,与该名词的性数一致。

Voilà un travail bien fait.

Il pleure ses amis morts.

2)兼有动词特点,可有补语、状语等。

Ils se promenaient souvent le long de la rivière bordée d’arbres.

Les films faits pour instruire le font dormir.

3)直接及物动词的过去分词具有被动意义。

Il relit son devoir corrigé par le professeur.

Nous avons visité une grande usine construite dans les années 60.

2.2.用法:

1)作形容语

Par la fenêtre ouverte, on voyait que la salle était pleine de monde.

Les spectateurs surpris se jetèrent vers la sortie.

2)作表语

Nous sommes entourés d’ennemis psychologiques.

Cette vieille maison semblait abandonnée.

3)作状语

L’étranger, bien embarrassé, ne sait plus que faire.

Le conférencier sortit, suivi d’une foule d’étudiants.

3.3.说明

1)以avoir为助动词的不及物动词的过去分词,一般不能单独使用。

2)以être为助动词的不及物动词的过去分词,可以单独使用,具有主动意义,表示动作先完成,其性数与被修饰名词或代词一致。

Descendue du train, elle a aperu son ami qui l’attendait sur le quai.

3)某些代动词的过去分词也可以独立使用,具有主动意义,也表示动作先完成,其性数与被修饰的名词代词相一致。

Réveillée dès cinq heures, elle put partir à six heures.

unit2过去分词作宾补用法小结2016-12-21 21:40:40 | #3楼回目录

Unit2过去分词作宾补用法小结

英语中过去分词可作宾补,(此时的过去分词一般是及物动词)表被动意义或完成意义,有时两者兼而有之。做宾补的过去分词与宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系,即宾语是过去分词动作的对象。如:

She found the door broken in when she came back.(宾补与宾语有被动的关系,表一种状态。)

一. 过去分词用在表状态的动词keep,leave等的后面。

Eg:They kept the door locked for a long time.

Keep your mouth shut and your eyes open.(谚语:少说多看) Don't leave such an important thing undone.

Don't leave the windows broken like this all the time.

二.过分词用在get,have,make, 的后面。

1.注意“have +宾语+过去分词”的两种情况:

A)表让某人做某事/让某事(被人)做

eg: I have had my bike repaired.

The villagers had many trees planted just then.

B)表遭遇到某种不幸,受到打击/受....影响,蒙受..... 损失

Eg:I had my wallet stolen on a bus last month.

The old man had his leg broken in the accident.

He had his leg broken in the match yesterday.(MET1986)

2.make+宾语+过去分词,在这种结构中,过去分词的动词必须是表示结果含义的。如:

They managed to make themselves understood in very simple English. I raised my voice to make myself heard.

三、过去分词用在感观动词watch,notice,see,hear,listen to ,feel,find等后面。如

When we got to school,we saw the door locked.

We can hear the windows beaten by the heavy rain drops.

He felt himself cheated.

The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see carried out the next year.(NMET2000)

四、过去分词用在want,wish,like ,expect等表示“希望,愿望”这一类动词后面做宾补。如

The bowouldn't like the problem discussed at the moment. I would like my house painted white.

I want the suit made to his own measure.

I wish the problem settled.

五、过去分词用在“with +宾语+宾补”这一结构中,过去分词与宾语之间是动宾关系。如:

The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back.

With many brightly-coloured flowers planted around the building ,his house looks like a beautiful garden.

With everything well arranged,he left the office.

六、过去分词、现在分词、和不定式作宾补的区别。

现在分词作宾补:宾语和补语之间是主谓关系。其动作与谓语动作同时进行。 过去分词作宾补:宾语和补语之间是动宾关系。其动作先于谓语动作。

不定式作宾补: 表一个完成的动作、或表一个很短时间内看到、听到或感觉到的具体动作。

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