动词不定式的用法小结

动词不定式的用法小结 | 楼主 | 2017-12-03 22:38:49 共有3个回复
  1. 1动词不定式的用法小结
  2. 2初中英语动词不定式的用法小结
  3. 3英语动词不定式的完成式用法小结

可以接动词不定式作宾语补足语动词有等等,一作主语可以用代替叫形式主语动词不定式放在后面叫真正主语,她告诉我什么地方可以找到耳机,九作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词有主谓关系。

动词不定式的用法小结2017-12-03 22:36:37 | #1楼回目录

1.作主语

作主语用的动词不定式(短语)常常用it替代,动词不定式(或短语)放在后面。 It's easy to get lost in a forest.

It is terrible for them to see the ship sinking into the sea.

2.作宾语

可以接动词不定式作宾语的动词有agree (同意); offer (提出); intend, plan (打算,计划); demand, ask (要求); promise (答应); help (帮忙); prepare (准备); decide (决定); refuse (拒绝);dare (敢于); choose (选择); wish,hope,want, expect (希望,想要); fail ;(不能;忘记); pretend (假装); manage (设法); determine (决心)等等。 People in Sichuan like to eat hot food.

They need to look at a map.

有的动词不定式在作带有补足语的宾语时,前面往往带有形式宾语it。例如:Do you think it necessary for us to learn to wait?

They improved the software to make it easier for people to use computers.

3.作表语

He seems to be a teacher.

The man's duty is to take care of the flowers in the garden.

4.作宾语补足语

可以接动词不定式作宾语补足语动词有ask , tell , get , order , would like , want , teach , show , allow ,permit, encourage , warn , wish , invite ,help等等。

He told me not to smoke any more.

Who taught you to play the piano?

5.作定语 动词不定式作定语时,要放在它所修饰的名词或代词后面。例如:In my dreams I always have very difficult jobs to do.

He has no pen to write with.

6.作状语

(1)表示目的

In order to catch the first bus, she got up very early that morning.

You can hide under my seat when the conductor comes to check the tickets. In his third year,he left Harvard to work for a company called Microsoft.

(2)表示结果

She hurried to the hotel to find his husband gone already.

动词不定式作状语表示结果时常与副词too或enough连用。

It's too heavy to carry.

The Californian ship arrived too late to save more people.

The child isn’t old enough to go to school.

(3)表示原因

和动词不定式经常连用的形容词有glad,pleased,happy,sorry,afraid, surprised等等。 The baby was very happy to see his mother.

I'm sorry to trouble you.

7.和疑问词who,what,when,where,which,how, whether等构成不定式短语,在句中作宾语、主语、表语、宾语补足语等。

I don't know what to do next.

Can you give me some advice on how to learn English well? Whether to arrive there depends on the weather. The question is where to find the magic medicine. Our teacher showed us how to make coffee.

初中英语动词不定式的用法小结2017-12-03 22:38:29 | #2楼回目录

一、作主语,可以用it代替,it叫形式主语,动词不定式放在后面叫真正主语

1.To learn a foreign language is not easy.

It is not easy to learn a foreign language.

2. It’s dangerous to drive very fast.

二、作表语

My idea is to ring him up at once. 我的想法是马上给他打电话。

如果主语部分含实义动词do,且作表语的动词又是“do”的内容,这时表语不定式的“to”可以省略。如:All I did was wait here. 我能做的就是在这里等。

三、常可接动词不定式作宾语的动词有:agree(同意), hope(希望), decide(决定), need(需要), mean(打算), wish(希望), fail(失败), want(想要), begin(开始), would like(想要)等。

He has decided to go to the countryside. 他已决心去乡下。

四、“疑问词 + 动词不定式”结构可以作动词know、think、find out等的宾语。

I don’t know who to ask. 我真不知道该问谁。

五、“疑问词 + 动词不定式”可以作动词show、teach、ask等后面的直接宾语。

She told me where to find the earphone. 她告诉我什么地方可以找到耳机。

六、如果宾语太长,可用it作形式宾语,构成“主语 + 谓语 + it + 宾语不足语(名词或形容词) + to do sth”结构,谓语动词常为find、think、feel等。

I found it difficult to stop him. 我发现拦截他很困难。

七、动词不定式可以作介词的宾语。

Autumn harvest is about to start. 秋收即将开始。

I’m worrying about what to do next.我正愁下一步该怎么办。

八、作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词有动宾关系。

I have a lot of books to read. 我有许多书要读。

此时,如果动词不定式动词为不及物动词,后面的介词绝对不能省略。

We had only a cold room to live in. 我们只有寒室一间。

九、作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词有主谓关系。

He is always the first to come and the last to leave. 他总是第一个到,最后一个走。

十、作定语的动词不定式与被修饰词之间只有修饰关系。

We have no time to go to town today. 今天我们没有时间去城里。

十一、作状语的动词不定式常表示目的、原因、方向、结果等。

I’m glad to meet you. 见到你,我很高兴。

They ran over to welcome the foreign guests. 他们跑过来欢迎外宾。

十二、不定式复合结构“for sb to do sth”可用作主语、表语、定语、状语等。

It’s for her to decide. 这得由她来决定。(表语)

There are many books for you to read. 这有许多书供你阅读。(定语)

The book ids too difficult for children to read. 这本书太难了,孩子们看不懂。(结果状语) 不定式复合结构作主语时,需注意:

It’s + 形容词 + for / of + sb + to do sth.

当上面的形容词指的是to do sth的性质时,用介词for。

It’s dangerous for children to swim in the river. 孩子在这条河里游泳很危险。(游泳这件事情危险) 当上面的形容词指的是sb的性质时,用介词of。这些形容词往往修饰人:good, bad, polite, unkind, kind, nice, clever, right, wrong, careful, careless

It was careleof you to do that. 你这么做真粗心。(你这个人粗心)

十三、动词hear, see, feel, watch, notice, look at, listen to等后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语时不能带to, 即常见的形式为: hear sb do sth等

Many people like to watch others play games. 许多人喜欢看别人玩游戏.

十四、let, make, have后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语, 也不能带to; help后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语, to可有可无

She let us meet her at the station, but she didn’t come. 她让我们去车站迎接她,卡她没有来.

十五、十三和十四这两种情况下的动词不定式在改被动语态句子时,必须将省略的to还原,也就是说,

动词后需跟带to的动词不定式.

We heard him sing every day.

He was heard to sing every day. 那时每天都听到他唱歌.

十六、跟带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词还有: ask, beg, leave, like, love, hate, prefer, order, teach, tell, believe, find, know, want, think, understand, would like等

形式为: ask sb to do sth

Would you like me to visit him? 要不要我拜访他?

I would prefer you not to come tomorrow. 我宁愿你明天不要来.

He ask the driver to stop the motobike. 他要那位司机拦下那辆摩托车.

十七、区别下列词组的不同含义:

①like to do sth

like doing sth

②stop to do sth

stop doing sth

③remember to do sth

remember doing sth

④forget to do sth

forget doing sth

十八、It takes sb some time to do sth.花费某人一段时间干某事.

It took me half an hour to do my homework yesterday.昨天我花了半小时做回家作业.

It took Jim an hour and a half to read the book.吉姆花了一个半小时看这本书.

It took mother one and a half hours to do the housework.母亲花了一个半小时干家务.

用汉字表述上面的句型为:It + take + 人 + 一段时间 + to do sth.

一段时间形式往往为像这样的例子:fifteen minutes15分钟,an hour一个小时, two days两天, half a month半个月,a year and a half一年半...等等

十九、不定式的特殊句型too…to…

①too…to太…以至于…

He is too excited to speak.

他太激动了,说不出话来。

---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?

---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

②如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义,意 为"不太"。

It's never too late to mend. (谚语)

改过不嫌晚。

③当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very。

I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。

He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

二十、不定式的特殊句型Why not

"Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"例如:Why not take a holiday?

干吗不去度假?

英语动词不定式的完成式用法小结2017-12-03 22:38:02 | #3楼回目录

英语动词不定式完成式在使用语境中的学习与考查

江苏省沛县湖西中学 鹿俊先 221611

综观近年的英语高考试题,我们可以看到题目的设置往往强调语言知识在特定语境中的使用,把语言知识放在了语用层面上,即考察实际应用知识的能力。

英语动词不定式的完成式,即(to) have +动词的过去分词形式,是中学英语学习中的重点及难点知识之一,也是高考试题中频繁出现的形式。对于这一形式考查的题目设置通常围绕三类语境,即陈述已经发生过了的事实,推测可能已经发生过了的事实,表达与过去实际情况相反的事实。下面分别加以叙述,以便从语用角度掌握这一语言知识。

1.陈述已经发生过了的事实。

1.1.置于表示情感反应的动词、形容词、分词之后,作为引起该反应的刺激,表示情感反应之前完成的动作。例如: you so much trouble.)

It is good work for the day. (=I am pleased because I have finished.) his life to his country. (=…he was happy that he 1.2.置于be said, be considered, be believed, seem, appear, happen, turn out,等之后表示这些动作之前完成的动作。例如: U.S.A. this September.

abroad, but….) small mistake.) 1.3.置于should之后,表达说话人对已发生了的事实的情感的反应,如惊奇、遗憾、喜悦、不安、失望,等,should相当于汉语中的“竟然”,“居然”。例如: They were surprised (that) a child out the problem while they themselves couldn't. 2.推测可能已经发生过了的事实。

2.1.置于must, will, would, can't, couldn't 之后,表示很有把握的推论。例如:--I met her soon after the war.

1

--There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. ; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside.

2.2.置于should, shouldn't, ought to, oughtn't to之后,表示较有把握的推测。通常意义为:正常情况/如无意外应该或不该已经……。例如: any problems, I think.

2.3.置于could, may, might之后,表示不太有把握的猜测。例如:

--Polly’s very late.

--What do you think that noise was? 2.4.与can, could结合用于疑问句,询问是否有可能发生了某事。例如:

I can’t find John in the school. 3.表达与过去实际情况相反的事实。

3.1.置于should, ought to, shouldn't, oughtn't to, could, might, needn't之后,表示应该做的事未做,不该做的事做了;可以做的事未做,不必做的事做了。使用于指责、抱怨等场合,可分别译为“本应该……”, “本不该……”,“本可以……”,“本不必……”等。例如:--I stayed at a hotel while in New York. There was a lot of fun at yesterday's party. You but why didn't you? 3.2.置于表示希望、意图意义的动词或动词词组的过去式(如:hoped, planned, expected, intended, meant, would like, were / was to)之后,表达落空了的希望、未实现的意图。可分别译为“本希望……”、“本打算……”、“本想……”。例如: 3.3.句子中含有假设条件从句或上下文暗示了假设条件时,置于would,2

should, might, could, ought to 之后,表达与已发生的客观事实不一致的结果。不含情态意义时would用于所有人称,should仅用于第一人称。而would, should, might, could, ought to可以含有其本身的情态意义。例如: something she would regret later.

If Bob had started at nine o’clock, he in London by eleven o’clock.

3.4.置于could, might之后,表示虽然动作并未发生,但现在看来当时存在发生的可能。该句型可看作因不言而寓而无须明示假设条件从句的形式。例如:

You were crazy to ski down there -- you had not been lucky.) one).

3

回复帖子
标题:
内容:
相关话题