初中英语定语从句小结

初中英语定语从句小结 | 楼主 | 2017-11-12 14:32:41 共有3个回复
  1. 1初中英语语法---状语从句小结
  2. 2初中英语宾语从句小结
  3. 3初中英语宾语从句小结

一般译为直到才或直到之前还不,这个秘密在老人去世后才说出来,当我顺着马路往前走的时候我发现一家商店前停着一辆警车,目的状语动词中常有情态动词或,他讲话太快只有几个学生能听懂。

初中英语语法---状语从句小结2017-11-12 14:29:41 | #1楼回目录

状语从句是一种作状语用的从句,修饰主句的动词、形容词、副词或修饰全句,补充说明时间、地点、原因、条件、方式、程度、状态等。根据它表达的意思的不同,可分为时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、条件状语从句、比较状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句等。时间状语从句、条件状语从句、结果状语从句、原因状语从句都是中考的重点。

一、时间状语从句时间状语从句表示主句动作发生的时间,引导时间状语从句的连词有when, as, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, since等。

until 用于肯定句中,表示句子的动作一直持续到until短语所表示的时间为止,即表示动作的终点。一般可译为“直到……时(为止)”或“在……以前”。在这种用法中,句子的谓语动词必须是持续动词(非瞬间动词),如live, wait, last, love, like, stay, work, continue等。until用于否定句中,表示句子的动作直到until短语所表示的时间才开始发生,即表示动作的起点。一般译为“直到……才”或“直到……之前(……还不 )”

eg. It may last until Friday. 这可能要延续到星期五。

用于否定句中:

eg. The secret was never told until after the old man's death.

这个秘密在老人去世后才说出来。

连词until

以同样的方式分析作连词的until的用法。作连词用的until的英文释义是up to the time when(直到……时为止)。

作连词的until用于肯定句中,表示主句的动作一直持续到从句动作发生或状态出现时为止。一般可译为“……直到……为止”。在这种用法中,主句的谓语动词必须是持续动词(非瞬间动词),如live, wait , last, love, like, stay, work, continue 等。

eg. Heat can be conducted from a hot body to a cooler one until both are at the same temperature.

热可以从一个热的物体传到一个较冷的物体,直到两者温度相同为止。

作连词的until用于否定句中 , 表示主句的动作在从句的动作发生之前尚未发生,或者说主句的动作在从句的动作发生之后才开始。一般可译为“直到……才”。

eg. I hadn't realized she was foreign until she spoke. 她不说话我还一直不知道她是个外国人。

since作连词引导时间状语从句的用法:

一、若since引导的状语从句的谓语动词是终止性的过去时,则从句表示的时间是“从动作开始的那一时刻起”。如:

eg. He has studied very hard since he came to our school.

自从他来到我们学校,他学习就非常努力。

二、若since引导的状语从句的谓语动词是持续性动词或表示状态的动词的过去时时,则从句表示的时间是“从那持续动作或状态结束时算起”。

eg. I haven't heard any noise since I slept.

Sleep为持续性动词,sleep的动作结束时,即“醒来”时,这句应译为“我醒后还未听到任何声音”。

John is now with his parents in New York, it is already three years since he was a teacher. 约翰现在和父母一起住在纽约,他不当教师已经三年了。

while表示“正当 …… 时”; (指同时)用于同时进行的两延续性动作相伴随而发生,常对同类的两动作进行对比。

eg. Please write while I read. 我念的时候,请写下来。

when表示“当 ……. 时:可表示瞬间、时间段,与主从句所述动作、事情可同时,也可有先后。例:

eg. It was snowing when we got to the airport. 我们到达机场时,天正下着雪。(同时发生)。

as当…时,强调at the same time

① 不指先后,而指同时发生,尤指短动作或事件同时发生,

eg. I looked; someone came here. 正当我看的时候,有个人走过来。

② as不可说明两种正在发展或变化的情况。

eg. As I get older, I get more optimistic. 随着年龄变大我变得更加乐观。

as、when、while都可引导时间较长的同时发生的“背景”情况。

eg. As (when, while) I was walking down the street, I noticed a police car in front of a shop. 当我顺着马路往前走的时候,我发现一家商店前停着一辆警车。

注意:1. 在以as soon as, until, when等引导的时间状语从句中,通常用一般现在时,而主句用将来时。

2. since引导的时间状语从句用一般过去时,主句常用完成时,并且动词用延续性动词。

二、条件状语从句条件状语从句表示主句动作发出的前提或条件、假想、推测等,条件状语从句通常由连词if, unless等引导。

eg. I'll help you with your English if I am free tomorrow. 如果我明天有空,我就帮你学英语。 He won't be late unlehe is ill. 他不会迟到的,除非他生病了。

注意:在if, unless等词引导的条件状语从句,主句的谓语动词用一般将来时,从句的谓语动词通常用一般现在时表示将来的含义。

三、目的状语从句目的状语从句表示主句的动作发生的目的或愿望,可用so that, that, in order that等词引导。

目的状语动词中常有情态动词may/might, can/could, should或will/would.

eg. He visited London in order that he could see his parents.

=He visited London so that he could see his parents. 为了看望父母他来到了伦敦。

School was closed early in order that the children might get home ahead of the storm. 学校早放学,为的是让孩子们在暴风雨前到家。

四、结果状语从句结果状语从句表示主句的动作所引起的结果,可以用so…that, such…that等引导。

eg. The burglar wore gloves, so that there were no fingerprints found. 窃贼带着手套,所以没有发现指纹。

He spoke so quickly that only a few students could follow him. 他讲话太快,只有几个学生能听懂。

The house is so expensive that very few people can afford it. 房子价格太贵,很少有人买得起。

He was so good a runner that nobody could catch him. 他是跑步的能手,没人能赶上他。 It is such a good chance that we mustn't miit. 如此好的机会我们绝不能错过。

It is such nice weather that I don't like to stay at home. 天气这么好,我不愿呆在家里。 辨析:so…that和such…that

so…that和such…that的意思均为“如此……以致……”,都用来引导结果状语从句。但二者用法不尽相同,现归纳如下:

1. so…that结构中的so为副词,后面跟形容词或副词;such…that中的such为形容词,后面接名词(名词前可以有形容词修饰)。

eg. He became so angry that he couldn't speak. 他变得很生气,以致说不出话来。

It was such a fine day that we went out for a walk. 那是一个很晴朗的日子,我们出去散步。

2. 当that前的名词有表示数量多少的many, much, few, little等修饰时,只能用so,不能用such.

eg. There was so much noise outside that we couldn't hear the teacher.

外面嘈杂声很大,以致我们不能听到老师的话。

He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over.

他跌了这么多的跤,以致全身青一块、紫一块的。

注意:若名词前的little解释为“小(的)”意思时,则仍用such, 而不能用so.

eg. They are such little sheep that they can't run fast.

它们是小绵羊,以至于它们跑得不快。

3. 当that前是单数可数名词且该名词前面有形容词修饰时,so与such可以互换,即:so+adj.+a/an+n.=such+a/an+adj.+n.

eg.She is so good a teacher that we all love her.=She is such a good teacher that we all love her.她是一位好老师,我们都爱她。

4. 当that前是不可数名词或复数可数名词时,则必须用such,不能用so来代替。

eg. It was such fine weather that they all went swimming. 那是个好天气,他们都去游泳了。 They are such nice apples that we would like to eat them. 它们是如此好的苹果,以致我们想吃它们。

五、原因状语从句原因状语从句由because, as, for, since等引导。 eg. We couldn't walk very fast because the road was very slippery. 因为路滑我们走不快。 As she's been ill, perhaps she'll need some help. 她由于生病可能需要些帮助。 Since you're not interested, I won't tell you about it. 既然你不感兴趣,那我就不告诉你。 辨析:because, since, as和for

1. because语气最强,表示直接原因,可用于回答 why 提出的问题、引导表语从句、用于强调句等,而其余三者均不行。

eg. “Why didn't he come?” “Because he was ill.” “他为什么没来?”“因为他病了。”

My stomach hurts because I have eaten too many apples. 我肚子痛,因为苹果吃得太多。 That's because you can't appreciate music. 这是因为你不能欣赏音乐。

It is because he is honest that I like him. 是因为他诚实我才喜欢他。

2. since语气较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原因,译为“既然”,侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已知的理由。

eg. Since you don't like it, I'll put it away. 既然你不喜欢,我就把它放在一边。 Since you are wrong, you should apologize. 你既然错了,就应该道歉。

3. as “由于,鉴于”,指客观事实,常与since互换使用。

eg. As there was no answer, I wrote again. 鉴于没回复,我又写了一封信。

As you weren't there, I left a message. 由于你不在那儿,我留了个口信。

4. for 是并列连词,不说明直接原因而是对某种情况加以推断,其引导的分句前常有逗号。

eg. He must be ill, for he is absent today. 他一定是生病了,因为他今天没来。

He took the food eagerly, for he has eaten nothing since dawn. 他狼吞虎咽地吃了起来,因为他从天亮都没吃过东西。

六、比较状语从句常由than, as…as…, not as(so)…as等连词引导。 eg. John is taller than his brother. 约翰比他的弟弟高。 I'm as tall as you. 我和你一样高。 He doesn't pay as much tax as we do/ as us. 他没有我们交的税款多。

七、方式状语从句常由as, as if(as though)等连词引导。

eg. Leave it as it is. 保持原状,别动它。

Do it as I do it. 照我的样子做这件事。

He treats me as if/ as though I were a child. 他把我当小孩子一样来对待。

They completely ignore the fact as if/ as though it never existed. 他们完全忽略了这个事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。

八、让步状语从句常由though(although)等连词引导。

eg. Although it was cold, he went out without a coat. 尽管天气很冷,他没有穿大衣就出去了。

Though they are poor, they have enough to eat. 他们虽然很穷,食物还是够吃的。 典型例题:

1. I________ the CDs to you if I have time tomorrow.

A. will returnB. returned C. have returnedD. return

解析:考查状语从句的时态。在if条件状语从句中,主句用将来时,从句用一般现在时,故选A。

2. -Dick gave me a note while I________ in the library.

-I guehe made it to say“sorry”to you.

A. am readingB. was readingC. readsD. will read

解析:主句使用了一般过去时,时间状语从句也应使用过去的某种时态,这里应使用过去进行时,表示动作正在发生。下句I guehe made it to say“sorry”to you. 也为解题提供了很好的提示。故选B。

3.-Look! Here comes our school bus.

-No hurry. Don't get on it________ it has stopped.

A. untilB. afterC. sinceD. when

解析:考查时间状语从句。句意为“看!我们的校车来了。”“别急。等车停稳再上去吧。”选A,not…until直到……才,是固定搭配。

4. I didn't know he came back________ I met him in the street.

A. since B. whenC. untilD. After

解析:考查时间状语从句。句意为:直到在街上见到他,我才知道他回来了。not…until是固定结构,表示“直到……才”。故选C。

5. I'll do it better if the teacher________ me another chance.

A. giveB. givesC. gaveD. will give

解析:考查状语从句的时态。if引导的状语从句一般遵循“主将从现”的规则,故选B。

6. When I went to say goodbye to Anna, she________ the piano.

A. is playingB. playsC. was playingD. played

解析:When引导的时间状语从句使用了一般过去时,主句也应使用过去的某种时态,这里表示动作正在发生(她正在弹钢琴),用过去进行时,这能使描写的对象更加生动。故选C。

7. I have been trying my best to study English________ I want to have a chance to be a volunteer for the Beijing Olympics.

A. untilB. becauseC. though

解析:考查原因状语从句。I want to have a chance to be a volunteer for the Beijing Olympics. (我想有机会成为一名北京奥运会的志愿者)与I have been trying my best to study English(我一直在竭尽全力学习英语)构成因果关系,故选B。

8. -How was your climbing on Mount Tai?

-I didn't believe I could do it________ I got to the top.

A. untilB. unleC. after D. when

解析:考查时间状语从句。not…until“直到……才”是固定句式。句意为“你爬泰山的感受是什么?”“我简直难以置信,直到登上山顶”。

9.-Look at the noisy kids!

-Haven't you heard the saying“When the cat is away, the mice________.”?

A. playB. playedC. are playingD. will play

解析:考查含有时间状语从句的主句的时态。规律是:“主将从现”,即从句用一般现在时,主句用一般将来时。故选D。“When the cat is away, the mice will play.”(相当于“山中无老虎,猴子称大王。”)

10. He met many problems________ he was going over his lessons.

A. beforeB. as soon as C. since D. while

解析:考查时间状语从句中连词的选用。要从意义和句子逻辑两方面考虑。与as和when相比,叙述两个较长时间的动作,特别是提供“背景”的时间更长时,常用while,故选D。句意为“他在复习功课时碰到了许多问题。”

语法专练: 一、时间、地点、条件、让步状语从句练习 1. People behind you will be unhappy ________ you talk too long on the phone. A. as B. forC. if

2. ________ you don't go to see the doctor, ________ you'll be worse.

A. If; / B. If; andC. If; or

3. Mother was busy cooking in the kitchen ________ father was watching TV in the sitting room.

A. as B. when C. while

4. Don't leave the office________ I come back.

A. whenB. if C. until

5. I didn't go to bed________ all the TV programmes were over.

A. untilB. whenC. after

6. There are usually some people watching________ those retired workers play chess.

A. whichB. where C. as

7. ________ it was raining, ________ we went on with our sports meeting.

A. Though; /B. Though; but C. /; but

8. I reached the station________ the train had just moved.

A. untilB. afterC. as soon as

9. The mouse had run into the hole________ the cat could catch it.

A. beforeB. afterC. as soon as

10. The baby stopped crying________ he saw his mother.

A. untilB. as soon asC. then

二、原因、比较、目的、结果状语从句练习。用所给的关联词将简单句连接成复合句。 1. He didn't pathe exam. He hadn't gone over his lessons. (because) 2. You can buy the dictionary. You have got enough money. (since) 3. You have seen the film twice. You can give the ticket to your brother.(now that) 4. It was a long letter. It took her more than two hours to type it.(such…that) 5. I called out to him in a loud voice. He heard me on the other side of the street.(so that) 6. Lily sings well. Linda sings well, too.(as…as) 7. Jim looks weak. His brother Tim looks even weaker.(than) 8. Mr. and Mrs. Smith work hard. They want to send their son to college.(in order that) 9. I'll give you some more examples. You can learn how to use this expression.(so that) 10. He ran very fast. Nobody in our clacould catch up with him.(so…that)

三、句型转换

1. The students were reading books. The teacher came into the room.(合并为一个含有时间状语从句的复合句)

________________________________________________

2. After the mother came back, the little girl went to bed.(改为同义句)

The little girl________ ________ to bed________ the mother cam back.

3. Jane and Kate are of the same age.(改为同义句)

Jane is________ ________ ________ Kate.

4. Study hard, and you'll catch up with your classmates.(改为同义句)

________ you ________ study hard, you ________ catch up with your classmates.

5. There are many rabbits in the filed in Australia. The farmers can't kill them all.(改为同义句)

There are ________ many rabbits in the filed in Australia________ farmers can't kill them all.

6. The boy is so lazy that he does badly in all his lessons.(改为同义句)

He is ________ a________ boy ________ he does badly in all his lessons.

7. If he isn't ill, he won't be late.(改为同义句)

He won't be late________ he is ill.

8. He visited London to see his parents.(改为复合句)

He visited London ________ ________ ________ he could see his parents.

9. I will try it; I may fail.(改写为让步状语从句)

I will try it, ________ ________ I may fail.

10. Without your help, I can't finish the work on time.(改为同义句)

________ you ________ help me, I can't finish the work on time.

四、完形填空

Have you ever heard of the satellite called Early Bird which was built by an organization consisting of 16 countries? Now dozens of satellites 1_____ into space, and they help people in many ways.

You can speak to people on 2_____ side of the world over the telephone 3_____ the help of satellites. They can help take photos of Earth and produce maps. Some pictures 4_____ by satellites show us the exact places where different metals can be found. They can also 5_____ the differences between healthy plants and poor ones. This is a great help to the scientists 6_____ work in forests. Satellites benefit our daily life. For example, satellites for 7_____ are used to send radio and TV programs from one part of the world to another. It is satellites that make our world seem 8_____.

A number of research stations have been set up to study outer space. In the past, it was difficult 9_____ the scientists to get a clear picture of the dusty air, while satellites make it easier now. They are being used more and more to collect information about space, just like 10_____ between space and us.

1. A. has putB. have put C. has been put D. have been put

2. A. other B. both C. neitherD. the other

3. A. withB. inC. by D. at

4. A. takeB. takes C. taking D. taken

5. A. sayB. speak C. tellD. read

6 A. whichB. whoC. where D. what

7. A. weatherB. army C. industryD. broadcasting

8. A. cleanerB. smallerC. larger D. farther

9. A. forB. of C. withD. by

10. A. lines B. lightsC. bridges D. ropes

五、阅读理解

They British Museum is the biggest museum in the world. Inside you feel smaller than usual. The story of the British Museum goes back three hundred years to one unusual man. Sir Hans Sloane, a doctor to King George Ⅱ.

The doctor collected books, drawings, clothes, money, animals, flowers, things from all over the world. The doctor wanted everything to stay together when he died, so that people could come and have a look. The British Museum began. King George Ⅱ gave his library, and the museum started to grow.

The British Museum opened in 1759, six years after Sir Hans Sloane died. At first the museum was only open three days a week and only ten people could enter in an hour. There wasn't much time to see things. Visitors had to run through the rooms.

By about 1800, things began to get better. Wonderful statues(雕像), three thousand years old, arrived from Egypt.

George IV sold all his books to the museum secretly. A hundred years ago, not only old books but also new ones arrived at the museum, and more people came to read them. Since then many famous men have written and studied there. And the library is growing faster and faster. There are four kilometers of new shelves every year and there are about two million visitors every year.

1. Sir Hans Sloane was interested in_____. A. collecting all kinds of books B. collecting all kinds of drawings C. collecting all kinds of money D. collecting all kinds of things

2. When you go inside the British Museum, you feel smaller than usual because_____.

A. the museum is emptyB. the museum is very big

C. there are too many things in itD. you are too small

3. Sir Hans Sloane died_____.

A. in 1753B. in 1759C. in 1765D. in 1800

4. At first, the visitors had to run through the museum because_____. A. there were only several things to see B. the museum was the biggest one in the world C. they were not interested in the things in it D. they had only one hour to see all the things in it 5. The passage is mainly about_____. A. Sir Hans SloaneB. George Ⅱ C. the history of the British Museum D. the books of the museum

答案与解析:

一、1. C 本句用从属连词if引导条件状语从句。本句如果使用as引导原因状语从句或用for连接并列句,句子时态要调整:People behind you are unhappy as you have talked too long on the phone.

People behind you are unhappy, for you have talked too long on the phone.

2. A if用来连接条件状语从句,and或or用来连接并列句,所以用if就不能用后两个并列连词。

3. C while在这儿连接一个时间状语,表示与主句同时进行的动作。

4. C “not…until…”句型表示“不到……就不(要)……”或“直到……才……”。

5. C 本句的最佳答案是after,而until不能使用,除非将主句改为否定句:I didn't go to bed until all the TV programmes were over.

6. B 本句中用where引导地点状语从句。

7. A though与but不能并用;可只用but,但句子开头须大写。

8. B after引导时间状语从句,明确表示从句动词表示的动作先于主句动词表示的动作。

9. A before引导时间状语从句,明确表示主句动词表示的动作先于从句动词表示的动作。

10. B as soon as引导时间状语从句,表示从句动作一发生,主句动作即发生。由于两个动作连接紧密,所以从句中不一定要用过去完成时。

二、1. He didn't pathe exam because he hadn't gone over his lessons. 用because引导原因状语从句置主句之后。

2. Since you have got enough money, you can buy the dictionary. 用since引导状语从句表示说话双方都知悉的原因。

3. Now that you have seen the film twice, you can give the ticket to your brother. Now that引导原因状语从句,表示“既然……”。

4. It was such a long letter that it took her more than two hours to type it. such后往往跟名词或名词性词组,和that连接表示结果。

5. I called out to him in a loud voice so that he heard me on the other side of the street. so that在本句中引导结果状语从句。

6. Linda sings as well as Lily. “as+副词原级+as”表示两者程度相同。

7. Jim's brother Tim looks even weaker than he(looks weak). than引导一个省略了谓语部分的比较状语从句。

8. Mr. and Mrs. Smith work hard in order that they may send their son to college. “in order that”引导目的状语从句。

9. I'll give you some more examples so that you can learn how to use this expression. “so that”在本句中引导目的状语从句。

10. He ran so fast that nobody in our clacould catch up with him. “so…that…”引导结果状语从句。

三、句型转换 1. The students were reading books when the teacher came into the room. 2. didn't go; until/ before/ till 3. as old as 4. If; don't; won't 5. so; that 6. such; lazy; that 7. unle8. in order that 9. even though

10. If; don't

四、完形填空

1. D 本句使用现在完成时的被动语态。

2. D 由名词side判断,应排除B项;C项表否定,不合题意;表示特指就用定冠词the, the other side of the world意为“世界的另一端”,故选D。

3. A with the help of为固定短语,意为“在……帮助下”。

4. D 过去分词作后置定语。some pictures taken by satellites“被卫星拍的图片”。

5. C tell在此意为“区分,辨别”,其他选项不合文意。

6. B 本句使用定语从句,先行词为人,故使用关系词who.

7. D broadcasting意为“广播”。

8. B 由句意可知“卫星使我们的世界似乎变小了”。

9. A “对于某人来讲”用介词for.

10. C “卫星好像是太空和我们之间的桥梁”。

五、阅读理解

1. D 由短文第三段第一句“The doctor collected books, drawings, clothes, money, animals, flowers, things from all over the world.”可知,他收集各种各样的东西。

2. B 由短文第一句可知。

3. A 由短文第四段第一句可知,博物馆是在Sir Hans Sloane去世六年后开业的,而开业是在1759年,应减去六年即1753年去世的。

4. D 由短文第四段可知,初进博物馆一次只允许10个人进入1小时,时间紧,游人不得不跑。

5. C 本文主要讲述英国博物馆的历史。

初中英语宾语从句小结2017-11-12 14:30:25 | #2楼回目录

一、当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

She said that she would leave the message on the headmaster's desk.她说她会把留言条放在校长桌子上。

He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作

二、当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

Alice wanted to know if/whether her grandmother liked the bag.爱丽斯想知道她祖母是否喜欢这个包。

I don't know whether he'll come the day after tomorrow.我不知道他后天是否会来

但直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如: Let me know whether / if he will come or not.(= Let me know whether or not he will come )让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether / if he does any washing or not.(= I don't know whether or not he does any washing. )我不知道他在家洗不洗衣服。

I wonder whether we stay or whether we go.我想知道我们是去还是留。

三、如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的疑问词引导。如:

Could you tell me where we will have the meeting this afternoon?你能告诉我我们今天下午将在哪儿开会吗?

I don't know who bought the present for me. Is it Jack?我不知道谁给我买了礼物。是杰克吗?

初中英语宾语从句小结2017-11-12 14:30:05 | #3楼回目录

一、当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。如:

She said that she would leave the message on the headmaster's desk.她说她会把留言条放在校长桌子上。

He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作

二、当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

Alice wanted to know if/whether her grandmother liked the bag.爱丽斯想知道她祖母是否喜欢这个包。

I don't know whether he'll come the day after tomorrow.我不知道他后天是否会来 但直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(ifor not也可以使用)。如:

Let me know whether / if he will come or not.(= Let me know whether or not he will come )让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether / if he does any washing or not.(= I don't know whether or not he does any washing. )我不知道他在家洗不洗衣服。

I wonder whether we stay or whether we go.我想知道我们是去还是留。

三、如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的疑问词引导。如:

Could you tell me where we will have the meeting this afternoon?你能告诉我我们今天下午将在哪儿开会吗?

I don't know who bought the present for me. Is it Jack?我不知道谁给我买了礼物。是杰克吗?

时间介词的用法和辨异

表示时间的介词,在英语介词中占着相当重要的位置。在初中阶段英语教学过程中,已出现了许多用来表示时间的介词。其中有:at on in during for to till un til after by before等。本文着重谈一谈这些介词在表示时间的用法及它们之间的同异之处。

1.at on in

a)at用来表示时间时,通常指时间的某一点。例如:at five o’clock atnoon atmidnight

b)on用来表示某一段时间,特指某天或某天的上午 下午或晚上。例如:on Sunday,on October,on Saturday morning.

c)in也可用来表示一段时间,但多指长于一天或不到一天的时间段。例如:inJanuary,insummer, in1988, in the morning ,in the evening.

2.in与during

a)during用来表示一段时间,其意义大致相当于in的用法。一般来说,凡是能用in的地方,也可以用during.例如:He came to see me during my absence.Don’t go to see his wife in his absence.

B)during与in的区别在于during强调时间的延续性,而in则只是一般指某一时间。试比较:They visited many cities during their stay in China.Her grandpa was killed in the war.

3.in for during

a)“in+时间”与“for+时间”都可表示一段时间,但“for+时间”表示“有多久”,而“in+时间”则表示“在何时”。例如:We worked there for the winter.They worked there in winter. 以上两例中,in winter强调“在冬季”,不一定包括整个冬季时间,而for the winter则强调“整个冬天”。

b)for用来表示一般时间,常跟具体的时间段。例如 for a few days for 3 weeks for five months等

4.since与after since与after

都可以用来引导表示从过去某一点开始的时间段词组。它们的不同之处在于:

a)since引导的词组所表示的时间一直延续到说话时为止,因而要与现在完成时连用。例如:He has been there twice since 1982.I have done nothing since six o’clock.

b)after引导的词组所表示的时间是纯系过去,并不延续到说话时,因此要和一般过去时连用。例如:He went home after school.

5.till until与to

a)介词till/until常用于“ http://baogao.oh100.com ”结构中,表示“一个动作的终结”。介词to常用在“from.to”的结构中,用来表示“一个阶段的终结”。两者在这种结构中意义十分接近。例如:The Americans stayed here from June to September.He studies from morning till/until night everyday.

b)to可用在表示钟点的词前。我们说It’s six tofive 但不能说It’s six till/until five.反之在某些能用till/until的场合,却不能用to.例如:在“not.until”结构中,我们说I didn’t go to bed till/until ten o’clock.却不能说I didn’t go to bed to ten o’clock.

c)till与until也有细微区别。till常用在非正式文体或口语中,而until则常用于正式文体及比较正式的场合。另外,在句首多用until.

6.by before

a)by表示时间时,意思是“到以前”、“不迟于”、“到时(为止)”。例如:by supper time by the end of last term

b)before表示时间,意为“在以前”。例如:before liberation the day before yesterday c)by与before的区别在于,by短语表示时间,强调“终止点”,而before短语表示时间,强调“起始点”。例如:Your son will be all right by suppertime.

句中的by suppertime表示从说话时到晚饭前这段时间。而before构成短语则表示从某一时间或事件之前,例如:The poor children couldn’t go to school before liberation.

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