英语修辞方法小结

英语修辞方法小结 | 楼主 | 2017-10-30 09:12:59 共有3个回复
  1. 1英语修辞方法小结
  2. 2英语修辞方法总结
  3. 3英语修辞手法小结

去年今日此门中人面桃花相映红人面麻花相对搓,早上没有时间观念还真是一件好事,与相反的一种修辞法将一系列词语由大到小由强到弱地排列,好莱坞美国电影制片业电影界,当她经过的时候花儿向她点头致意。

英语修辞方法小结2017-10-30 09:11:37 | #1楼回目录

RHETORIC

Metonymy

Metonymy is a figure of speech that has to do with the substitution of the name of one thing for that of another. This substituted name may be an attribute of that other thing or be closely associated with it. In other words, it involves a change of name.

She was a girl who excited the emotions, but I was not one to let my heart rule my head.

He took to the bottle.

...little old Japan adrift amid beige concrete skyscrapers ...struggle between kimono and the miniskirt

I thought that Hiroshima still felt the impact

Metonymy can be derived from various sources:

a. Names of persons

Uncle Sam: the USA

Lu Xun: all the books written by him

I am recently reading Lu Xun.

b. Animals

the bear: the Soviet union

the dragon: the Chinese

c. Parts of the body

heart: feelings and emotions

head, brain: wisdom, intelligence, reason

grey hair: old age

d. Profession:

the press: newspapers, reporters etc.

He met the preyesterday evening at the Grand Hotel.

the bar: the legal profession

e. Location of government, busineetc.

Downing Street: the British Government

the White House: the US president and his government

the Capital Hill: US Congress

Wall Street: US financial circles

Hollywood: American film-making industry

Just as the Industrial Revolution took over an immense range of tasks from MEN's MUSCLES and enormously expanded

productivity, so the microcomputer is rapidly assuming huge burdens of drudgery from HUMAN BRAIN and thereby expanding the minds capacities...

Synecdoche

Synecdoche (ti yu) has often been confused with Metonymy, and sometimes even treated synonymously. This is not surprising, as both figures of speech involve substitution. The distinction lies in the fact that while metonymy involves the substitution of the name of one thing for that of another, synecdoche involves the substitution of the Part for the WHOLE or

vice versa.

a. Part for the Whole:

...eat your humble BREAD and CHEESE...

All HANDS on deck.

All of a sudden, I saw a SAIL in the distance.

...eye-ball to eye-ball consultations with...on the TUBE...

The computer revolution is ...liberating LIMBS...

cf: metonymy

take over from HUMAN MUSCLES and assume burdens of drudgery from the HUMAN BRAIN

b. Whole for the Part:

China beat Japan at the game.

He cut me open and took out the appendix and stitched me up again.

c. The species for the genus or vice versa

Alas, that Spring should vanish with the ROSE! (flowers in general) What a tricky CREATURE he is! (man)

d. Name of material for the thing made

She was dressed in silks and satins.

...eye-ball to eye-ball consultations with...on the TUBE...

The computer revolution is ...liberating LIMBS...

Antonomasia (huan cheng)

1. the substitution of another designation for a common obvious, or normal one,

a. the use of an official title or an epithet in place of a proper name

a有两种,同样是用另外一个指称来代替一个普通明白的,或标准的说法,但第一是实指,因此给了Judge Doe,即用“大人”代替“张(或王、李等)法官”,有如用“先生”、“阁下”指代“张省长”,“邱首相”等,

his honour for Judge Doe

his / her majesty: king or queen

your honour / highne/ mightiness

而第二种是虚指,因此没有给姓氏,也没有大写,如用“首席行政长官”来代替“总统”,用“首长”,“中央领导”来代替“市长”,“省长”或“部长”“副总理”等。但这两种替代必须是官方正式头衔或称号(an official title or an epithet), chief executive for the president

b: the use of a proper name to designate a member of a class

b也有两个方面,第一点的重点在proper name两个词的理解上,冯说

antonomasia与metonymy的区别在于: the proper name must denote some idea or characteristic of a well-known person, either history or fiction, 而王也说:The main difference between antonomasia and metonymy lies in that in the former the proper nouns have biblical, mythological, historical or literary origins Solomon a wise ruler Daniel a wise and fair judge

Judas a traitor

Hitler a tyrant

Shylock an extortionate usurer

Romeo romantic young lover

Don Juan a lady-killer

Quisling traitor

Helen beautiful woman

Rockefeller is a Napoleon of finance.

He is the Napoleon of crime.

John / He is the Newton of our school / this century.

the latter-day Aladdin

Alice A

also the making of a common noun or verb from a proper name

b第二点涉及词性词义转换,法国科学家Pasteur(巴斯德)发明了巴氏消毒法,于是就产生了动词pasteurize,名词pasteurization,这种变换一目了然,毋庸赘言。当然,如果从词源学的视角去研究,肯定也会有另一番景色。 pasteurize from Pasteur

Wellsian fantasy

Smithsonian antic

2. the giving of proper name (as to a character in fiction) that names or suggests a leading quality

至于antonomasia的2,谢已经给了很好的说明:“…使人物的姓(名)本身就包括一个对其特点的简短说明。…如拜伦的MiReading,MiKnowman;狄更斯的Mr. Murderstone, 萨克莱的Becky Sharp等。”其要害仍然是proper name必需传递某种特性,有如汉语中的卜世仁,高大全等。

Squire Allworthy, Doctor Sawbones

Parallelism

...everything from automobile engines to universities and hospitals, from farms to banks and corporate offices, from outer space to a baby's nursery

Onomatopoeia

alarm clock burrs

percolator starts burbling

Parody: a literary or music work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effects, for amusement or http://baogao.oh100.com ing the words, thoughts, or style of an author, but by a slight change so as to adapt them to a new purpose or ridiculously inappropriate subject, bitter irony, biting sarcasm

繁荣必然娼盛。

革命不是请客就是吃饭。咱们共产党人是吃喝不垮的。

一个人做一件坏事并不难,难就难在一辈子只做坏事,不做好事。

去年今日此门中,人面桃花相映红,(人面麻花相对搓)

人面不知何处去,桃花依旧笑春风。(麻花依旧下油锅)

Never ventured, never gained (lost).

...and that government of (off) the people, by (buy) the people, for (foe) the people shall not perish from the earth.

Twinkle, twinkle, little bat,

How I wonder what you’re at,

Up above the world you fly,

Like a tea tray in the sky.

A judge to a witness: "Do you swear that you will tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? A dentist to a patient: "... pull the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth?"

Never put off till tomorrow what can be done today (can be put off till

day after tomorrow just as well).

Never put off till tomorrow what can be (done today) put off till the day after tomorrow just as well. (Mark Twain)

the ultimate applications ...are still around the bend of a silicon circuit.

Alliteration

Next to health, heart and home, happinefor mobile Americans depends upon the automobile.

英语修辞方法总结2017-10-30 09:10:43 | #2楼回目录

英语修辞手法总结 英语中的修辞与汉语的修辞相比,分类细,种类多.下面将英语的修辞简单介绍如下:

性.

1.Simile 明喻 明喻是将具有共性的不同事物作对比.这种共性存在于人们的心里,而不是事物的自然属标志词常用 like, as, seem, as if, as though, similar to, such as等. 例如:

1>.He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow. 2>.I wandered lonely as a cloud.

3>.Einstein only had a blanket on, as if he had just walked out of a fairy tale.

2.Metaphor 隐喻,暗喻

隐喻是简缩了的明喻,是将某一事物的名称用于另一事物,通过比较形成. 例如:

1>.Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.

2>.Some books are to be tasted, others swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.

4.Synecdoche 提喻

提喻用部分代替全体,或用全体代替部分,或特殊代替一般. 例如: 1>.There are about 100 hands working in his factory.(部分代整体) 他的厂里约有100名工人. 2>.He is the Newton of this century.(特殊代一般) 他是本世纪的牛顿. 3>.The fox goes very well with your cap.(整体代部分) 这狐皮围脖与你的帽子很相配.3.Metonymy 借喻,转喻 借喻不直接说出所要说的事物,而使用另一个与之相关的事物名称. I.以容器代替内容,例如: 1>.The kettle boils. 水开了. 2>.The room sat silent. 全屋人安静地坐着. II.以资料.工具代替事物的名称,例如: Lend me your ears, please. 请听我说. III.以作者代替作品,例如: a complete Shakespeare 莎士比亚全集 VI.以具体事物代替抽象概念,例如: I had the muscle, and they made money out of it. 我有力气,他们就用我的力气赚钱.

5.Synaesthesia 通感,联觉,移觉

这种修辞法是以视.听.触.嗅.味等感觉直接描写事物.通感就是把不同感官的感觉沟通起来,借联想引起感觉转移,“以感觉写感觉”。

通感技巧的运用,能突破语言的局限,丰富表情达意的审美情趣,起到增强文采的艺术效果。比如:欣赏建筑的重复与变化的样式会联想到音乐的重复与变化的节奏;闻到酸的东西会联想到尖锐的物体;听到飘渺轻柔的音乐会联想到薄薄的半透明的纱子;又比如朱自清《荷塘月色》里的“ 微风过处送来缕缕清香,仿佛远处高楼上渺茫的歌声似的”。 例如:

1>.The birds sat upon a tree and poured forth their lily like voice.(用视觉形容听觉,鸟落在树上,由它发出的声音联想到百合花)

鸟儿落在树上,倾泻出百合花似的声音.

2>.Taste the music of Mozart.(用嗅觉形容听觉)

品尝Mozart的音乐.

7.Hyperbole 夸张

夸张是以言过其实的说法表达强调的目的.它可以加强语势,增加表达效果..

例如:

1>.I beg a thousand pardons.

2>.Love you. You are the whole world to me, and the moon and the stars.

3>.When she heard the bad news, a river of tears poured out.

8.Parallelism 排比, 平行

这种修辞法是把两个或两个以上的结构大体相同或相似,意思相关,语气一致的短语.句子排列成串,形成一个整体.

例如:

1>.No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly moral till all are moral; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.

2>.In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon you and yours, to the last of your bad race, to answer for them. In the days when all these things are to be answered for, I summon your brother, the worst of your bad race, to answer for them separately.

9.Euphemism 委婉,婉辞法

婉辞法指用委婉,文雅的方法表达粗恶,避讳的话. 6.Personification 拟人 拟人是把生命赋予无生命的事物. 例如: 1>.The night gently lays her hand at our fevered heads.(把夜拟人化) 2>.I was very happy and could hear the birds singing in the woods.(把鸟拟人化)

例如: 1>.He is out visiting the necessary.?? 他出去方便一下. 2>.His relation with his wife has not been fortunate. 他与妻子关系不融洽. 3>.Deng Xiaoping passed away in 1997. (去世)

10.Allegory 讽喻,比方(原意“寓言”)

建立在假借过去或别处的事例与对象之上,传达暗示,影射或者讥讽现世各种现象的含义。 英文解释:

an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor 摘自英语专业《大学英语教程》一书

这是一种源于希腊文的修辞法,意为"换个方式的说法".它是一种形象的描述,具有双重性,表层含义与真正意味的是两回事.

例如:

1>.Make the hay while the sun shines.

表层含义:趁着出太阳的时候晒草

真正意味:趁热打铁

2>.It's time to turn plough into sword.

表层含义:是时候把犁变成剑

11.Irony 反语

反语指用相反意义的词来表达意思的作文方式.如在指责过失.错误时,用赞同过失的说法,而在表扬时,则近乎责难的说法.

例如:

1>.It would be a fine thing indeed not knowing what time it was in the morning.

早上没有时间观念还真是一件好事啊(真实含义是应该明确早上的时间观念)

2>"Of course, you only carry large notes, no small change on you. "the waiter said to the beggar.

12.Pun 双关

双关就是用一个词在句子中的双重含义,借题发挥.作出多种解释,旁敲侧击,从而达到意想不到的幽默.滑稽效果.它主要以相似的词形.词意和谐音的方式出现.

例如:

1>.She is too low for a high praise, too brown for a fair praise and too little for a great praise. 2>.An ambassador is an honest man who lies abroad for the good of his country.

3>.If we don't hang together, we shall hang separately.

13.Parody 仿拟

这是一种模仿名言.警句.谚语,改动其中部分词语,从而使其产生新意的修辞.

例如:

1>.Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year.

2>.A friend in need is a friend to be avoided.

3>.If you give a girl an inch nowadays she will make addreof it.

14.Rhetorical question 修辞疑问(反问)

它与疑问句的不同在于它并不以得到答复为目的,而是以疑问为手段,取得修辞上的效果,其特点是:肯定问句表示强烈否定,而否定问句表示强烈的肯定.它的答案往往是不言而喻的. 例如:

1>.How was it possible to walk for an hour through the woods and see nothing worth of note? 2>.Shall we allow those untruths to go unanswered?

15.Antithesis 对照,对比,对偶

这种修辞指将意义完全相反的语句排在一起对比的一种修辞方法.

例如:

1>.Not that I loved Caeser lebut that I loved Romemore.

2>.You are staying; I am going.

3>.Give me liberty, or give me death.

16.Paradox 隽语

这是一种貌似矛盾,但包含一定哲理的意味深长的说法,是一种矛盾修辞法..

例如:

1>.More haste, lespeed.欲速则不达

2>.The child is the father to the man.(童年时代可决定人之未来)三岁看大,四岁看老。

17.Oxymoron 反意法,逆喻

这也是一种矛盾修辞法,用两种不相调和的特征形容一个事物,以不协调的搭配使读者领悟句中微妙的含义.

例如:

1>.No light, but rather darknevisible.没有光亮,黑暗却清晰可见

2>.The state of this house is cheerlewelcome.

18.Climax 渐进法,层进法

这种修辞是将一系列词语按照意念的大小.轻重.深浅.高低等逐层渐进,最后达到顶点.可以增强语势,逐渐加深读者印象.

例如:

1>.I am sorry, I am so sorry, I am so extremely sorry.

2>.Eye had not seen nor ear heard, and nothing had touched his heart of stone.

19.Anticlimax 渐降法

与climax相反的一种修辞法,将一系列词语由大到小,由强到弱地排列.

例如:

1>.On his breast he wears his decorations, at his side a sword, on his feet a pair of boots. 2>.The duties of a soldier are to protect his country and peel potatoes

英语修辞手法小结2017-10-30 09:10:56 | #3楼回目录

英语修辞手法小结Stella整理

明喻(Simile);暗喻/隐喻(metaphor);提喻(synecdoche);转喻/借代(metonymy);拟人(personification);夸张(hyperbole);反语/讽刺(irony);双关(pun);叠言(rhetorical repetition);通感(synesthesia);拟声(onomatcpocia);头韵法(alliteration);交错法(chiasmus);委婉语(euphemism);对照(contrast);矛盾修辞法(oxymoron);移就(transferred epithet);异叙(syllepsis);粘连(zeugma);仿拟(parody);隽语(paradox);低调(understatement)

2. 结构修辞格(Syntactical Stylistic Devices)

反复(repetition);联珠(catchword repetition);回文(chiasmus);平行结构(parallelism);反对(antithesis);设问(rhetoric question);突降(anticlimax)

3. 音韵修辞格(Phonetic Stylistic Devices)

头韵(alliteration);拟声(onomatopoeia)

Analogy类比

Understatement含蓄陈述

Syllepsis一语双叙

Zeugma轭式搭配

Innuendo暗讽

Sarcasm讽刺

Paradox似非而是的隽语

Oxymoron矛盾修饰

Antithesis对照

Epigram警句

Climax渐进

Anti-climax or bathos突降

Apostrophe顿呼

Apostrophe顿呼

Transferred Epithet转类形容词

understatement低调

contrast对照

transferredepithet移就

syllepsis异叙

zeugma粘连

repetition 反复

catchword repetition联珠

chiasmus回文

parallelism平行结构

rhetoric question设问

1. 明喻(simile)是用like, as, as...as, as if(though) 或用其他词语指出两个不同事物的相似之处。例如:

(1)我的爱人像一朵红红的玫瑰花。

(2)他像被蜇了似的跳了起来。

(3)The man can't be trusted. He is as slippery as an eel.

那个人不可信赖。他像鳗鱼一样狡猾。

2. 暗喻/隐喻(metaphor)这种比喻不通过比喻词进行,而是直接将用事物当作乙事物来描写,甲乙两事物之间的联系和相似之处是暗含的。

(1)He has a heart of stone. 他有一颗铁石心肠。

(2)The world is a stage. 世界是一个大舞台。

(3)The diamond department was the heart and center of the store.

钻石部是商店的心脏和核心。

3. 提喻(synecdoche)主要特点是局部代表全体,或以全体喻指部分;或以抽象代具体,或以具体代抽象;以特殊代表一般,或用一般代表特殊。例如:

(1)of millions of men.

长城不仅是用石头和土建造的,而且是用几百万人的血和肉建成的。 句中的“the flesh and blood”喻为“the great sacrifice”(巨大的牺牲)

(2)“”

他说这是世界上最美的语言。

这里用具体的“tongue”代替抽象的“language”。

(3)—year black girl on the US team.

很多人将眼光投向美国队一个高高的20岁的黑姑娘。

这里的“many eyes”代替了“many persons”。

(4)他靠写作挣钱谋生。

(5)

在收获季节里农场缺乏劳动力。

(6)他是这个世纪的牛顿。

4. 转喻/借代(metonymy)是用某一事物的名称代替另外一个与它关系密切的事物的名称,只要一提到其中一种事物,就会使人联想到另一种。比如用the White House 代替美国政府或者总统, 用the bottle来代替wine 或者alcohol, 用the bar 来代替the legal profession,用 crown代替 king等。。

例如:

(1)

他的经济条件不允许他享受那种奢华。

(2)母亲尽最大努力照看孩子。

(3)他在1848年继承了王位。

(4)Several years later, came that Napoleon himself was coming to inspect them... 几年以后,他们听说拿破仑要亲自来视察他们。

“word”在这里代替了“news, information”(消息、信息)

(5)“yes”. 艾尔用眼睛说,“是的”。

“说”应该是嘴的功能,这里实际上是用眼神表达了“说话的意思”。

(6)例子

Uncle Sam( 山姆大叔)--the United States(美国)

Fleet Street(舰队街)--the British press(英国报界)

the Pentagon(五角大楼)--U.S Defence Department (美国国防部)Foggy Bottom(雾谷)--U.S. State Department (美国国务院)

Hollywood(好莱坞)--American film-making industry (美国电影制片业,电影界)

10,Downing Street(唐宁街10号)--the residence and office of the British prime minister(英国首相官邸)

Ivan(伊万)--the Russian people(俄罗斯人民)

5. 换喻/换称(Antonomasia)一个专有名词联系不同背景的共同特征,借助原有的联想,迅速建立新的联想,代换一个普通名词。它和借代(Metonymy)不同之点在于换称中的专有名词通常来自三种渊源:宗教,古代及当代的历史和文学。而借代中的专有名词则无须具有类似的起端。

(1)宗教或神话渊源(biblical or mythological figures)

Solomon(所罗门)--awise man(聪明人)

Daniel(但尼尔)--awise and fair judge (聪明而公正的法官)

Judas(犹大)--a traitor(叛徒)

Hercules(赫丘利)--a hero of strength and bravery (大力神)

(2)历史渊源(historical figures)

the Rubicon(鲁比肯河)--an irrevocable step (破釜沉舟,无可挽回)Nero(尼禄)-a tyrant(暴君)

John Wayne(约翰韦恩)--a modern figure of a tough man(粗旷型男子汉形象)

(3)文学渊源(literary figures)

Uncle Tom(汤姆大叔)--a Negro who compromises and conforms with the Whites (与白人妥协顺应的黑人)

6. 拟人(personification)把人类的特点、特性加于外界事物之上,使之人格化,以物拟人,以达到彼此交融,合二为一。 例如:

(1)我的心在歌唱。

(2)这一次命运朝他微笑了。

(3)

当她经过的时候花儿向她点头致意。

(4)风穿过树丛,树叶哗哗作响。

(5)

我唯一担心的是,到了一月份我又得去找工作。

英语里常把“年”“月”“日”人格化,赋以生命,使人们读起来亲切生动。

7.委婉 (euphemism) 用温和的、间接的词语代替生硬的、粗俗的词语,以免直接说出不愉快的事实冒犯别人或者造成令人窘迫、沮丧的局面。例如: 用to fall asleep; cease thinking; paaway; go to heaven; leave us 代替 to die 用senior citizens代替old people

用 a slow learner或者an under achiever代替a stupid pupil

用weight watcher代替 fat people

用mental hospital 代替 madhouse或者 asylum

用emotionally disturbed代替mad

用washroom, men's / women's room代替 lavatory

用 handicapped代替 crippled

用low income brackets; underprivileged; disadvantaged 代替 poor people

7. 夸张(hyperbole)这是运用丰富的想象,过激的言词,渲染和装饰客观事物,以达到强调的效果。

(1)My blood froze. 我的血液都凝固了。

(2)When I told our father about this,his heart burst. 当我将这件事告诉我们的父亲时,他的心几乎要迸出来。

(3) My heart almost stopped beating when I heard my daughter’s voice on the phone. 从电话里一听到我女儿的声音,我的心几乎停止跳动。

8.反语/讽刺(irony)是指用含蓄的褒义词语来表示其反面的意义,从而达到使本义更加幽默,更加讽刺的效果。

(1)Well, of course, I knew that gentlemen like you carry only large notes. 啊,当然,我知道像你这样的先生只带大票子。

店员这句话意在讽刺这位穿破衣的顾客:像你这样的人怎么会有大票子呢?名为“gentlemen”实则“beg gar”而已。

9. 双关语(pun)用同音异义或者一词二义来达到诙谐幽默的效果:表面上是一个意思,而实际上却暗含另一个意思,这种暗含的意思才是句子真正的目的所在。

(1)

一发炮弹打断了他的腿,所以他缴械投降了。

(arms可指手臂或者武器)

(2)

七天没有水使一个人虚弱。或者:七天没有水就是一周没有水。

10. 叠言(rhetorical repetition)这种修辞法是指在特定的语境中,将相同的结构,相同意义词组成句子重叠使用,以增强语气和力量。

(1)It must be created by the blood and the work of all of us who believe in the future, who believe in man and his glorious man—made destiny. 它必须用我们这些对于未来,对于人类以及人类自己创造的伟大命运具有信心的人的鲜血和汗水去创造。

(2)... Because good technique in medicine and surgery means more quickly—cured patients, lepain, lediscomfort, ledeath, ledisease and ledeformity. 因为优良的医疗技术和外科手术意味着更快地治疗病人,更少痛苦,更少不安,更少死亡,更少疾病,和更少残废。

11. 通感(synesthesia)是指在某个感官所产生的感觉,转到另一个感官的心理感受。

(1)Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested. 有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应当吞下去的,有少数书是应当咀嚼和消化的。

书是“尝”不出味道的,也是不能“吃”下去将其“消化”掉的。这里把读书中的精读和泛读,阅读欣赏与吸收知识的感受,用味觉功能和消化功能来表示,心理感受是如此逼真和奇特。

12. 拟声(onomatopoeia)是摹仿自然界中非语言的声音,其发音和所描写的事物的声音很相似,使语言显得生动,富有表现力。

(1)On the root of the school house some pigeons were softly cooing. 在学校房屋的屋顶上一些鸽子正轻轻地咕咕叫着。

(2)She brought me into touch with everything that could be reached or felt——sunlight, the rustling of silk, the noises of insects, the creaking of a door, the voice of a loved one. 她使我接触到所有够得着的或者感觉得到的东西,如阳光呀,丝绸摆动时的沙沙声呀,昆虫的叫声呀,开门的吱嗄声呀,亲人的说话声呀。

13. 头韵法(alliteration)两个或者更多的词以相同的音韵或者字母开头就构成头韵。例如:

(1)proud as a peacock

blind as a bat

safe and sound

(2)Long and loudly little Lily laughed. 小莉莉长时间地、大声地笑着。

(3)The windows waved violently in the wind. 窗户在风中剧烈地摇动。

(4)The sun sank slowly. 太阳慢慢地下沉。

14. 交错法(chiasmus)属于并列关系。chiasmus结构中的分句之间的地位是平等的,它们不仅具有相同的(平行的)语法结构,而且表示具有同等重要性的(并列的)意义。这种并列关系也同样存在于词组、短语间形成的chiasmus结构。例如:an optimist sees an opportunity in every calamity; a pessimist sees a calamity in every opportunity. 乐观者在灾难中看到机遇;悲观者却在机遇中看到灾难。(这个例子是包含有chiasmus结构的两个平行句,表示并列意义。)

knowing something of everything and everything of something. 通百艺而专一长。

15. Parody(仿拟)

Little John was born with a silver spoon in a mouth, which was rather curly and large. 英语成语to be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth的含义是“出生在富贵之家”。试译:小约翰嘴形弯曲,且大得出奇,好像生下来的时候嘴中含了一把银勺子似的。

8. 矛盾修饰 (oxymoron) 把相互矛盾的两个词用在一起的修辞方法。它利用词义表面的相互矛盾使表层的不和谐统一在思想内容的深层,从而揭示事物对立统一的本质特征,达到加深印象的目的。例如:

(1)She read the long-awaited letter with a tearful smile. 她带着含泪的微笑读那封盼望已久的信。

(2)The coach had to be cruel to be kind to his trainees.教练为了对他的受训者仁慈就要对他们残酷。

(3)During his useful life he often felt he was useless. 在他大有作为的一生中他老是感到自己无用。

(4)其他还有sweet pain; thunderous silence; luxurious poverty; heavy lightness; living death; impossible hope 等等。

9. 轭式搭配 (zeugma) 把适用于某一事物的词语顺势用到另外一事物上的方法。在同一个句子里一个词可以修饰或者控制两个或更多的词,它可以使语言活泼,富有幽默感。例如:

(1)She opened the door and her heart to the homeleboy. 她对那无家可归的男孩打开了房门,也敞开了胸怀。

(2)As I left home after breakfast, I shivered inwardly as well as outwardly. 早餐之后我离开家的时候,我的里里外外都在颤抖。

(3)I would my horse had the speed of your tongue. 我希望我的马能有你的舌头的速度。

10. 移位修饰(transferred epithet) 将本应该用来修饰某一类名词的修饰语用来修饰另一类名词。例如:

(1)There was a short, thoughtful silence. 出现了一阵短暂的、令人沉思的寂静。

(2)The old man put a reassuring hand on my shoulder. 老人把一只令人安心的手放在我的肩膀上。

(3)He closed his busy life at the age of sixty. 在六十岁时他结束了他那忙碌的一生。

(4)This is the cheapest market in this country. 这是这个国家最便宜的市场了。

12. 渐进 (climax) 根据事物的逻辑关系,由小到大,由轻到重,由浅到深,由低到高,由少到多依次渐进地进行描述或论述。这种整齐的结构可以使人们的思想认识一层层深化提高,增强语言的感染力和说服力。例如:

(1)I came; I saw; I conquer. 我来了;我看到了;我征服。

(2)Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. 读书使人充实;交谈使人机智;写作使人精确。

(3)Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested. 书有可浅尝者,有可吞咽者,更有少数须消化咀嚼者。

(4)Lincoln recognized worth in the common people; he loved the common people; he fought for the common people; and he died for the common people. 林肯认识到平民大众的价值;他热爱平民大众;他为平民大众而斗争;他为平民大众而献身。

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